The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of apocynin and paeonol, APPA, in symptomatic knee OA: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.  Asger Reinstrup Bihlet, Inger Byrjalsen, Jeppe Ragnar Andersen, Alan Reynolds, Nicholas Larkins, Peter Alexandersen, Helene Rovsing, Robert Moots and Philip G. Conaghan. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, (2024). Paper.

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of APPA (Apocynin and Paeonol) in Human Articular Chondrocytes. Fernández-Moreno M, Hermida-Gómez T, Larkins N, Reynolds A, Blanco FJ. Pharmaceuticals. 2024; 17(1):118. Paper.

Effect of APPA compound on cellular senescence using human articular chondrocytes. Fernández-Moreno M, Hermida-Gómez T, Larkins N, Reynolds A, Blanco FJ. Abstract has been accepted for publication at OARSI 2023. Volume 31, SUPPLEMENT 1, S401-S402, March 2023: Abstract.

The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of apocynin and paeonol in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Bihlet AR, Byrjalsen I, Andersen JR, Metnik A, Reynolds A, Larkins N, et al. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2022;81(Suppl 1):321 Abstract POS0180: Abstract & Poster.

The efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of apocynin and paeonol in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  Bihlet AR, Byrjalsen I, Andersen JR, Metnik A, Reynolds A, Larkins N, Alexandersen P et al.  OARSI 2022 Annual Meeting Poster Presentation: Abstract & Poster.

APPA (apocynin and paeonol) reduces ROS production and senescence in human articular chondrocytes. Fernandez-Moreno M, Larkins N, Reynolds A, Hermida Gómez T, Blanco FJ. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2021;80(Suppl 1):1051 Abstract AB0036: Abstract.

Characterizing the effect of APPA on tissue turnover in cartilage and bone tissue cultures. Thudium CS, Bay-Jensen AC, Gantzel T, Dziegiel M, Larkins N, Reynolds A. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2021;29 (Supplement1):SS152 Abstract 83: Abstract.

Biological effect of APPA (Apocynin and Paeonol) in human articular chondrocytes. Fernandez-Moreno M, Larkins N, Reynolds A, Hermida-Gomez T, Blanco FJ. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2021;29 (supplement1):S358 Abstract 432: Abstract.

Efficacy and safety of the combination of apocynin and paeonol (APPA): an uncontrolled patient case series. Larkins N. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2020;79 Suppl 1:1738 Abstract AB0872: Abstract.

APPA (apocynin and paeonol) modulates pathological aspects of human neutrophil function, without suppressing antimicrobial ability, and inhibits TNFα expression and signalling. Cross AL, Hawkes J, Wright HL, Moots RJ, Edwards SW. Inflammopharmacology. 2020;28(5):1223-35: Paper.

APPA Inhibits neutrophil pro-inflammatory functions without impairing host defence: is this a potential new therapy for arthritis? Cross AL, Hawkes JJ, Wright HL, Moots RJ, Edwards SW. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019;58 Supplement 3:46, Abstract 014: Abstract.

APPA, a potential new therapy for osteoarthritis, inhibits neutrophil pro-inflammatory functions without impairing host defence. Cross A, Hawkes J, Wright H, N L, Edwards S, Moots R. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2019;27 (Suppl 1):S189 – S90: Abstract & Poster.

Effectiveness of apocynin-paeonol (APPA) for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs: comparisons with placebo and meloxicam in client-owned dogs. Larkins N, King C. Matters. 2017;10.19185/matters.201608000001: Paper.

APPA compared against meloxicam in canine OA. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. Larkins N, King C. 2017;25:S176: Abstract.

Effects of APPA on human neutrophil function. Cross A, Hawkes J, Moots R, Larkins N. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2016;24:S335-S6 Abstract 548: Abstract & Poster.

APPA provides symptom relief in clinical canine osteoarthritis. Glasson S, Larkins N. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2012;20 (Suppl 1):S287: Abstract & Poster.

APPA provides disease modification in preclinical osteoarthritis. Glasson S, Bendele A, Larkins N. Planta Med. 2012;78:PI215: Abstract.

APPA provides disease modification in preclinical osteoarthritis. Glasson S, Bendele A, Larkins N. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2012;20:S72 -S3 Abstract 132: Abstract & Poster.